Section I Use of English
Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix, gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of little or no consequence.
Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests there's some good reason to have it,” she says.
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of friendlier types.
Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to do.
The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。
The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson's disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to have some modest protection against Parkinson's.
he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection。
New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in 1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years, the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped by surgery.
不敢公开：Dare not speak its name
This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。
We have known for a long time that the adenoids and tonsils “act as a first line of defense against pathogens that enter through the airways or eating,” says Sean Byars, a senior research fellow at the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health and lead author of the paper. The fact that these tissues are most prominent in children, with the adenoids nearly gone by adulthood, has bolstered the view that they are not essential, but as Byars points out, “maybe there's a reason they are largest in childhood.” Perhaps they play a developmental role, helping to shape the immune system in ways that have lasting consequences.
不依附于任何部门：Work indipendently of any institution
1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased
Byars cautions that his study, large though it is, awaits confirmation by others and that the decision to treat any given child must be made on an individual basis. Still, he says, “Given these are some of the most common surgeries in childhood, our results suggest a conservative approach would be wise.”
帮忙普及该意见：Help popularize the idea
2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare
It is worth noting that tonsillectomy rates have declined in the U.S., especially since the heyday in the mid-20th century. Surgeons are also doing fewer hysterectomies, reflecting a growing view that the uterus does not outlive its usefulness once childbearing is done and that there are less drastic ways to address common issues such as fibroid tumors.
引起了非常大的争议：Arouse much controversy
3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against
So are any human body parts truly useless or vestigial? Perhaps the best case can be made for the wisdom teeth. “Our faces are so flat, compared with other primates, that there's often not room for them,” Smith observes. And given how we butcher and cook our food, “we really don't need them.”
壹想到……就恐怖的身体颤抖：Tremble at the thought of
4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately
5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence
由细菌滋生的：Have a bacterial cause
6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk
2016考研英语寒假积累之固定搭配，全国工商管理硕士研究生考试英语模拟试题。7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects
He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.
8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question
结构提醒：that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句，not previously thought to have a bacterial cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually infections.
9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating
10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total
11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately
They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.
[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably
12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers
13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve
在此以前被认为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated
14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile
归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects
15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D]ca881亚洲城， put down
中度重视教育的思想意识a strong tradition of valuing education
16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing
被当作基因隔开的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation
17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument
密切相关 be intimately linked
18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined
使他们承受独特的开拓进取力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures
19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed
争执的景况 paradoxical state of affairs
20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous
Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)
Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately linked.
Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking。
Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness。
Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha！ experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。
One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。
Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution。
- According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to
[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。
[B] identify a problem。
[C] bring together disparate facts。
[D] stipulate clear goals。
- The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2？
[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis。
[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers。
[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do。
[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions。
- It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis？
[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts； Manager Y does not。
[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis； Manager Y does not。
[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem； Manager Y does not。